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News from Societies. In order to account for all the details, two massacres of virgins at Cologne have been accepted, one in the third century, the other in the fifth.

The different solutions with their variations suggested by scholars, sometimes with levity, sometimes with considerable learning, all share the important defect of being based on relatively late documents, unauthoritative and disfigured by manifest fables.

No conclusion can be drawn from these texts. Nevertheless, the fables they contain are insignificant in comparison with those which were invented and propagated later.

As they are now unhesitatingly rejected by everyone, it suffices to treat them briefly. In the twelfth century there were discovered in the Ager Ursulanus at Cologne , some distance from the Church of St.

Ursula, skeletons not only of women , but of little children, and even of men, and with them inscriptions which it is impossible not to recognize as gross forgeries.

All this gave rise to a number of fantastic legends, which are contained in the accounts of the vision of St. Elizabeth of Schonau, and of a religious who has been regarded as identical with Blessed Hermann Joseph of Steinfeld.

It may be remarked in passing that visions have played an important part in the question of the Eleven Thousand Virgins, as may be seen in those of Clematius and of the nun Helintrude contained in the Passion "Regnante Domino".

Those of the twelfth century, in combination with the inscriptions of the Ager Ursulanus , resulted in furnishing the names of a great many of the male and female companions of Ursula, in particular — and this will suffice to give an idea of the rest — that of a Pope Cyriacus, a native of Great Britain, said to have received the virgins at the time of their pilgrimage to Rome , to have abdicated the papal chair in order to follow them, and to have been martyred with them at Cologne.

No doubt it was readily acknowledged that this Pope Cyriacus was unknown in the pontifical records, but this, it was said, was because the cardinals , displeased with his abdication, erased his name from all the books.

Although the history of these saints of Cologne is obscure and very short, their cult was very widespread, and it would require a volume to relate in detail its many and remarkable manifestations.

To mention only two characteristics, since the twelfth century a large number of relics have been sent from Cologne, not only to neighbouring countries but throughout Western Christendom , and even India and China.

The legend of the Eleven Thousand Virgins has inspired a host of works of art, several of them of the highest merit, the most famous being the paintings of the old masters of Cologne, those of Memling at Bruges , and of Carpaccio at Venice.

The Order of Ursulines , founded in by St. Angela de Merici , and especially devoted to the education of young girls, has also helped to spread throughout the world the name and the cult of St.

The Latin accounts of the Eleven Thousand Virgins, with mention of all editions, have been catalogued by the Bollandists in Bibliotheca hagiographica latina , no.

Poncelet, Albert. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Robert B. Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. October 1, Remy Lafort, S.

There are two forms of the legend: one in Cologne and another Gallic. The legend says that Ursula was the daughter of a Christian king of Britain, who was granted a three-year postponement of a marriage she did not wish to a pagan prince, set sail with 10 companions in 11 ships.

Each of her companions travelled with 1, maid-servants. They sailed to Cologne and then along the Rhein to Basel. At Basel they moored their ships and crossed the Alps in order to visit Rome.

Ursula decided to lead her companions back to Cologne. There the leader of the Huns fell in love with her, was spurned, and massacred both the British princess and her 11, companions.

According to another legend, Amorica was settled by British colonizers and soldiers after Emperor Magnus Clemens Maximu conquered Britain and Gaul in The ruler of the settlers, Cynan Meiriadog, called on King Dionotus of Cornwall for wives for the settlers, whereupon Dionotus sent his daughter Ursula, who was to marry Cynan, with 11, noble maidens and 60, common women.

Their fleet was shipwrecked and all the women were enslaved or murdered Delaney. The story is difficult to believe as it stands. The earliest reference to the legend of her speaks only of 10 companions.

The present story began to be told only in the 8th or 9th century. Yet some truth attaches itself to the tale, as is generally the case.

An ancient stone let into the wall of Saint Ursula's Church in Cologne records that a certain senator Clematius rebuilt a memorial church in the 4th century over on the site of the martyrdom of a number of maidens.

Nothing more is said about them for another years, when in the ninth century the ramifying legend appears as taking shape Attwater.

Baring-Gould suggests that Saint Ursula with her bow and arrow, her ship and company of maidens, sails up the Rhine as Urschel, the Teutonic moon goddess, sailed before her, with all the graceful attributes of Isis and Diana.

She is likely to be one of the saints who has become confused with the old gods, that is, a real martyr's story has been embellished with that particulars of an old myth Roeder.

Saint Ursula is represented as a princess holding an arrow. Sometimes 1 with maidens under her mantle; 2 an angel comes to her as she sleeps Vittore Carpaccio's The Dream of St.

Ursula ; 3 she takes leave of her royal parents; 4 in a boat surrounded by maidens and ecclesiastics, as she sails down the Rhein; or 5 she and her companions massacred by bowmen Roeder.

Vittore Carpaccio's The Apotheosis of St. Ursula, , Venice. Claude Lorrain's The Embarkation of St. Saint Ursula is venerated at Cologne.

She is considered the patroness of maidens, drapers, and teachers; invoked for chastity and holy wedlock, and against the plague Roeder. October Ursula and Her Companions, Virgins and Martyrs.

Middle of the Fifth Age. Sainte Ursule, vers ,. Le non poche leggende che avvolgono la figura di S. Orsola o Ursula, figlia di un re di Britannia, era bellissima, segretamente consacrata a Dio.

Un re pagano, di nome Aetherius, si fece ben presto avanti per ottenerla in sposa. Ma la giovane pose alcune condizioni: una dilazione di tre anni, la promessa del pretendente che si sarebbe convertito e la programmazione di un pellegrinaggio insieme a Roma.

Dalla Svizzera raggiunsero a piedi, oranti pellegrine, Roma, dove Orsola fu ricevuta dal Papa. Davanti al Santo Padre comparve anche il promesso sposo che, nel frattempo, si era convertito al cristianesimo.

Nello stesso anno e seguendo il medesimo tragitto, le vergini ritornarono a Colonia.

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It belongs indisputably to the fifth century at the latest, and very probably to the fourth. The recent hypothesis of Reise, according to which the first eight lines, as far as RESTITVIT, belong to the fourth century, while the rest were added in the ninth, is more elegant than solid.

With still greater reason must we reject as purely arbitrary that of J. Ficker , which divides the first eight lines into two parts, the first being of pagan origin and dating from before the Christian Era , the second dating from the second century.

But despite its authenticity the inscription is far from clear. Many attempts have been made to interpret it, none of them satisfactory, but at least the following import may be gathered: A certain Clematius, a man of senatorial rank, who seems to have lived in the Orient before going to Cologne , was led by frequent visions to rebuild in this city, on land belonging to him, a basilica which had fallen into ruins, in honour of virgins who had suffered martyrdom on that spot.

This brief text is very important, for it testifies to the existence of a previous basilica, dating perhaps from the beginning of the fourth century, if not from the pre-Constantinian period.

For the authentic cult and hence for the actual existence of the virgin martyrs , it is a guarantee of great value, but it must be added that the exact date of the inscription is unknown, and the information it gives is very vague.

It does not indicate the number of the virgins, their names, or the period of their martyrdom. Nor does any other document supply any probable details on the last point.

Our ignorance on the first two is lessened to a certain extent by the mention on 21 Oct. Without doubt none of these documents is prior to the ninth century, but they are independent of the legend, which already began to circulate, and their evidence must not be entirely overlooked.

It is noteworthy that in only one of these lists Ursula ranks first. After the inscription of Clematius there is a gap of nearly five hundred years in our documents, for no trace of the martyrs is found again until the ninth century.

The oldest written text, "Sermo in natali sanctarum Coloniensium virginum", which seems to date from this period, serves to prove that there was at Cologne no precise tradition relating to the virgin martyrs.

According to this, they were several thousand in number, and suffered persecution during the reign of Diocletian and Maximian.

The names of only a few of them were known, and of these the writer gives only one, that of Pinnosa, who was then regarded as the most important of the number.

Some persons , probably in accordance with an interpretation, certainly questionable, of the inscription of Clematius, considered them as coming from the East, and connected them with the martyrs of the Theban Legion; others held them to be natives of Great Britain, and this was the opinion shared by the authors of the "Sermo".

Apparently some time after the "Sermo" we find the martyrology of Wandalbert of Prüm, compiled about , which speaks of several thousand virgins.

On the other hand Usuard, in his martyrology dating from about , mentions only "Martha and Saula with several others".

But as early as the end of the ninth century or the beginning of the tenth, the phrase "the eleven thousand virgins" is admitted without dispute.

How was this number reached? All sorts of explanations have been offered, some more ingenious than others.

The chief and rather gratuitous suppositions have been various errors of reading or interpretation, e. It has been conjectured, and this is less arbitrary, that it is the combination of the eleven virgins mentioned in the ancient liturgical books with the figure of several thousand millia given by Wandalbert.

However it may be, this number is henceforth accepted, as is also the British origin of the saints , while Ursula is substituted for Pinnosa and takes the foremost place among the virgins of Cologne.

The experiences of Ursula and her eleven thousand companions became the subject of a pious romance which acquired considerable celebrity.

Besides the subsequent revisions of this story there are two ancient versions, both originating at Cologne. One of these Fuit tempore pervetusto dates from the second half of the ninth century , and was only rarely copied during the Middle Ages.

The other Regnante Domino , also compiled in the ninth century, had a wide circulation, but adds little of importance to the first.

The author of the latter, probably in order to win more credence for his account, claims to have received it from one who in turn heard it from the lips of St.

Dunstan of Canterbury , but the serious anachronisms which he commits in saying this place it under suspicion. This legendary account is well known: Ursula, the daughter of a Christian king of Great Britain, was asked in marriage by the son of a great pagan king.

Desiring to remain a virgin, she obtained a delay of three years. At her request she was given as companions ten young women of noble birth, and she and each of the ten were accompanied by a thousand virgins, and the whole company, embarking in eleven ships sailed for three years.

When the appointed time was come, and Ursula's betrothed was about to claim her, a gale of wind carried the eleven thousand virgins far from the shores of England , and they went first by water to Cologne and thence to Basle, then by land from Basle to Rome.

They finally returned to Cologne , where they were slain by the Huns in hatred of the Faith. The literary origin of this romance is not easy to determine.

Apart from the inscription of Clematius, transcribed in the Passion "Fuit tempore" and paraphrased in the "Regnante Domino" Passion and the "Sermo in natali", the writers seem to have been aware of a Gallic legend of which a late version is found in Geoffrey of Monmouth : the usurper Maximus as Geoffrey calls the Emperor Maximian , having conquered British Armorica, sent there from Great Britain , colonists and 30, soldiers, and committed the government of Armorica to his former enemy, now his friend, the Breton prince, Conanus Meriadocus.

The latter decided to bring women from Great Britain to marry them to his subjects, to which end he appealed to Dionotus, King of Cornwall, who sent him his daughter Ursula, accompanied by 11, noble virgins and 60, other young women.

As the fleet which carried them sailed towards Armorica, a violent storm destroyed some of the ships and drove the rest of them to barbarian islands in Germany , where the virgins were slain by the Huns and the Picts.

The improbabilities, inconsistencies, and anachronisms of Geoffrey's account are obvious, and have often been dealt with in detail: moreover the story of Ursula and her companions is clothed with a less ideal character than in the Passions of Cologne.

However, this account has been regarded by several writers since Baronius as containing a summary of the true history of the holy martyrs.

Like the Passions of Cologne, it has been subjected to the anti-scientific method, which consists in setting aside as false the improbabilities, impossibilities, and manifest fables, and regarding the rest as authentic history.

As a consequence two essential traits remain: the English origin of the saints and their massacre by the Huns; and then, according as adherence is given to the "Sermo in natali", Geoffrey of Monmouth , or the Passion "Regnante Domino", the martyrdom of St.

Ursula is placed in the third, fourth, or fifth century. In order to account for all the details, two massacres of virgins at Cologne have been accepted, one in the third century, the other in the fifth.

The different solutions with their variations suggested by scholars, sometimes with levity, sometimes with considerable learning, all share the important defect of being based on relatively late documents, unauthoritative and disfigured by manifest fables.

No conclusion can be drawn from these texts. Nevertheless, the fables they contain are insignificant in comparison with those which were invented and propagated later.

As they are now unhesitatingly rejected by everyone, it suffices to treat them briefly. In the twelfth century there were discovered in the Ager Ursulanus at Cologne , some distance from the Church of St.

Ursula, skeletons not only of women , but of little children, and even of men, and with them inscriptions which it is impossible not to recognize as gross forgeries.

All this gave rise to a number of fantastic legends, which are contained in the accounts of the vision of St. Elizabeth of Schonau, and of a religious who has been regarded as identical with Blessed Hermann Joseph of Steinfeld.

It may be remarked in passing that visions have played an important part in the question of the Eleven Thousand Virgins, as may be seen in those of Clematius and of the nun Helintrude contained in the Passion "Regnante Domino".

Those of the twelfth century, in combination with the inscriptions of the Ager Ursulanus , resulted in furnishing the names of a great many of the male and female companions of Ursula, in particular — and this will suffice to give an idea of the rest — that of a Pope Cyriacus, a native of Great Britain, said to have received the virgins at the time of their pilgrimage to Rome , to have abdicated the papal chair in order to follow them, and to have been martyred with them at Cologne.

No doubt it was readily acknowledged that this Pope Cyriacus was unknown in the pontifical records, but this, it was said, was because the cardinals , displeased with his abdication, erased his name from all the books.

Although the history of these saints of Cologne is obscure and very short, their cult was very widespread, and it would require a volume to relate in detail its many and remarkable manifestations.

To mention only two characteristics, since the twelfth century a large number of relics have been sent from Cologne, not only to neighbouring countries but throughout Western Christendom , and even India and China.

The legend of the Eleven Thousand Virgins has inspired a host of works of art, several of them of the highest merit, the most famous being the paintings of the old masters of Cologne, those of Memling at Bruges , and of Carpaccio at Venice.

Les Vierges Barbares Video

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Les Vierges Barbares Bezahlungsoptionen

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Enseignement ésotérique : Les Vierges-mères,les Vierges noires et les apparitions mariales.

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